Prints of G.A.R. Parade in Oakland, Cal. Col. John S. Dumser's Grand Army of the Republic momento (Fron the History Information Station) California was a political and emotional battleground during the Civil War. The conflict was fought primarily in the newspapers and in elections but occasionally in brawls, as Union men and southerners tried to turn public sentiment. Because of the distance from California, and the balance between northern and southern sympathies, the Federal draft law was never enforced. Despite these problems, more than 16,000 men volunteered to serve the Union. Of these, 500, including the famous "California Hundred", went East to fight. California troops were also involved in repelling the 1862 Confederate invasion through New Mexico. The rest served primarily as Indian fighters and in local militias. A number of men also left in the early months to join Confederate units. California's most important contribution, though, was the gold and silver shipped East to apy the soldiers and purchse needed supplies.The state also gained population, as men coming to mine, farm, and trade were joined by others (including Mark Twain) avoiding the draft.

Used: John S. Dumser ~ colonel | Grand Army of the Republic

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